Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral hemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterized by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multi-organ failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock. Ebola virus constitutes the family Filoviridae in the order of Mononegavirales. Filoviruses are enveloped, non-segmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses of varying morphology. These viruses have characteristic filamentous particles that give the virus family its name. Ebola virus particles have a uniform diameter of 80 nm but can greatly vary in length, with lengths up to 14000 nm.
EVD is caused by four of five viruses classified in the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The four disease-causing viruses are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV), and one called simply, Ebola virus (EBOV, formerly Zaire Ebola virus). Ebola virus is the sole member of the Zaire ebolavirus species, and the most dangerous of the known Ebola disease-causing viruses, as well as being responsible for them largest number of outbreaks. The fifth virus, Reston virus (RESTV), is not thought to be disease-causing in humans. The five Ebola viruses are closely related to the Marburg viruses.
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms of Ebola HF typically include: Some patients may experience:
1. Fever 2. Headache 3. Joint and muscle aches 4. Weakness 5. Diarrhea 6. Vomiting 7. Stomach pain 8. Lack of appetite 9. A Rash Bleeding inside and outside of the body 10. Red Eyes 11. Hiccups 12. Cough 13. Sore throat 14. Chest pain 15. Difficulty breathing 16. Difficulty swallowing
Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after exposure to ebola virus though 8-10 days is most common.
Some who become sick with Ebola HF are able to recover, while others do not. The reasons behind this are not yet fully understood. However, it is known that patients who die usually have not developed a significant immune response to the virus at the time of death.
Route of Infection
Ebola virus seems to enter the host through mucosal surfaces, breaks, and abrasions in the skin, or by parenteral introduction. Most human infections in outbreaks seem to occur by direct contact with infected patients or cadavers. Infectious virus particles or viral RNA have been detected in semen, genital secretions and in skin of infected patients; they have also been isolated from skin, body fluids, and nasal secretions of experimentally infected non-human primates. Laboratory exposure through needlestick and blood has been reported.
How Can You Prevent Ebola?
There’s no vaccine to prevent Ebola. The best way to avoid catching the disease is by not traveling to areas where the virus is found. Health care workers can prevent infection by wearing masks, gloves, and goggles whenever they come into contact with people who may have Ebola.
But, it can be prevented with our “NATURAL AID”, The Herbo-Mineral Immunity Enhancer
Diagnosing Ebola HF in an individual who has been infected for only a few days is difficult, because the early symptoms, such as red eyes and a skin rash, are nonspecific to ebola virus infection and is seen often in patients with more commonly occurring diseases.
However, if a person has the early symptoms of Ebola HF and there is reason to believe that Ebola HF should be considered, the patient should be isolated and public health professionals notified. Samples from the patient can then be collected and tested to confirm infection.
Laboratory tests used in diagnosis include: